ANCIENT EGYPT SURVIVES UNTIL THE PRESENT DAY
An Alternate History Timeline
by Robert Perkins
PART FOUR--100 BC to 225 AD
95 BC: Pharaoh Psamtik X dies. Succeeded by Thutmoses VI.
90 BC-75 BC--First Parthian War between Rome and Parthia. Egypt neutral, secretly provides funding to both sides. War is inconclusive, both sides exhausted, agree to peace brokered by Egypt.
70 BC--Pharaoh Thutmoses VI dies, succeeded by Seti V.
70 BC-62 BC--First Roman Civil War. During this period, Roman exiles flee to Egypt, and Pharaoh Seti V reorganizes his infantry on the Roman model, using their technical expertise. Phalanx abandoned, legion adopted. Unlike the Romans, however, Egypt retains itís strong cavalry and archer contingents...army composition is Legionary Infantry (pilum, short sword)--40%, Foot Archers--20%, Armored Cataphract Cavalry (lance and bow)--30%, Light Horse Archers--10%.
62 BC-40 BC--In the aftermath of the First Roman Civil War, a Trimverate of powerful Roman Generals has emerged, and in alliance, rule the Republic. These are Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaius Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey"), and Marcus Licinius Crassus. Period of Roman expansion. An uneasy peace between Rome and Parthia in the east allows Rome to expand at the expense of itís barbarian neighbors to the north, east, and south. In 60 BC, Julius Caesar is elected Consul. Under his leadership Germany is conquered to the line of the Oder River. Meanwhile Pompey conquers the Dacians in what is OTL Romania, and Crassus invades and conquers Britain up to the line of the Firth of Forth.
40 BC-34 BC--Second Roman Civil War. Crassus is killed in battle in Britain in 40 BC. The First Triumverate breaks up and war breaks out between Caesar and Pompey. Caesar is eventually victorious, but is assassinated soon after. Power now lies in the hands of one of Caesarís generals, Mark Antony, and his nephew and adopted heir, Octavian. The two form an uneasy alliance, and for a few brief years, peace reigns in the Roman lands.
40 BC-35 BC--Egypt at war with Parthia. King Phraates IV of Parthia invades Egyptís Syrian provinces in 40 BC. The newly reorganized Egyptian army meets the Parthian host in battle and inflicts a sharp defeat on it, forcing it to retreat from Egyptian territory. The Parthians try again for each of the next five years, but with the same results. Egypt, which has no interest in further expansion in Asia, is finally able to bring the Parthians to the negotiating table after a particularly bloody defeat of the Parthian army at Damascus in 35 BC. However, periodic border raids by the Parthians will continue for the next few decades, despite the "official" peace between the two empires.
33 BC--Pharaoh Seti V dies, succeeded by Psamtik XI.
30-27 BC--Second Roman Civil War, when the uneasy alliance between Octavian and Antony finally breaks down. Fall of the Republic. Antony is defeated and killed, Octavian Caesar declared the first Roman Emperor, takes the name Caesar Augustus.
10 BC--Pharaoh Psamtik XI dies, succeeded by Necho X.
2 BC-31 AD--Second Parthian War between Rome and Parthia. After sitting on the fence for most of the war, in 29 AD Egypt allies itself with Rome. This decisively tips the balance, and Parthia loses Asia Minor to Rome. Egypt reclaims itís lands taken from it by the Ptolemies in the Third Punic War, putting the border of the Egyptian Empire back on the Euphrates.
4 BC--Yeshua born in Bethlehem, province of Yehud.
1 AD-1450 AD---Bantu migrations in Africa. The Bantu, iron-working cattle-herders who originated in the forests of west Africa, begin migrating south and east beginning in about 1 AD. By 200 AD, the first wave of Bantu will reach the area of Natal, in what is OTL South Africa. Other Bantu groups will move into East Africa during this period as well. All of these early groups will come under the influence of Egyptian culture, and later, when the Egyptians expand their holdings into the interior regions of east Africa beginning in 280 AD, under the political control of Egypt as well. Successive waves of Bantu migration will encounter the Egyptians, and either will be either repulsed or assimilated. In the years after 320 AD, Egyptian cultural influence will continued to creep inland, and as a result, by 1450 AD, most of the interior of Africa will consist of small city states which are, to one degree or another, Egyptianized culturally (the farther away from Egyptís borders, obviously, the less cultural affinity of the native city-state cultures). The last wave of Bantu migration will reach southern Africa about 1450 AD, where, like their predecessors, they will settle and assimilate to Egyptian culture.
12 AD--Pharaoh Necho X dies, succeeded by Ahmosi V.
30-33 AD--Yeshua called to ministry. 12 Disciples join him. Yeshua performs various miracles (healing the sick, blind, and lame, walking on water, converting water into wine, feeding a large multitude with a small number of loaves and fishes, and raising the dead, among others) and preaches a doctrine of peace, brotherly love, and redemption through the grace of God. He gains many followers, and comes to be seen as a threat by the Jewish authorities in Yehud. Although Yeshua himself does not claim it directly, his Disciples begin spreading the word that Yeshua is the long-awaited Messiah.
33 AD--Yeshua attacks vendors in Temple at Jerusalem during Passover celebration. Accused of Blasphemy by Sanhedrin, tried, convicted and executed. Body disappears from tomb 3 days later. The Disciples claim to have seen Yeshua, risen from the dead, begin making converts. These will be known as the "Maschiachim" (followers of the Messiah). Converts in Greek-speaking areas will give Yeshua a new name...Jesus Christ...and the "Maschiachim" will be better known as "Christians."
40 AD--Pharaoh Ahmosi V dies childless. The next in line to the throne is second cousin who lives in Sais, but the throne is usurped by an army general from Thebes who is also a cousin (but more distantly) of the deceased Pharaoh. This general takes the royal name of Wahibre II, founding the 29th Dynasty. Also in this year, most of the "Maschiachim" (Christians) are driven out of Yehud by the Jewish authorities. Communities are formed in Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Egypt, Athens, Arabia and Rome over the next few years. The new religion begins to spread.
50 AD-75 AD--Third Parthian War between Rome and Parthia. King Vologeses I of Parthia invades Asia Minor. Rome seeks an alliance with Egypt, but is turned down by Pharaoh Wahibre II, who has plenty to keep him busy at home as he consolidates his rule and stamps out rebellions by supporters of the legitimate heirs to the throne. After a quarter century of war, Parthia retakes Asia Minor. Both sides are exhausted, and an uneasy peace will reign over the region for the next 75 years.
64 AD--A great fire burns much of Rome to the ground. The Emperor Nero, who is widely suspected of starting the blaze himself so as to clear land for his new palace, accuses the Christians and begins a bloody persecution. However, the bravery of the Christians as they face martyrdom merely strengthens the new religion, and it continues to grow despite Neroís brutality. The persecutions end when Nero commits suicide in 68 AD, but will recur under later emperors.
60-100 AD--Christian Gospels composed and set down in writing.
90 AD--The grandson of the legitimate heir to the throne of Egypt, whose place was usurped by Wahibre II in 40 AD, leads a revolt. After a short civil war lasting less than a year, Wahibre is overthrown and the 28th Dynasty is restored. The new king takes the royal name of Rameses XVII.
100-105 AD: Border war between Rome and Egypt flares up, but ends inconclusively.
128 AD--Pharaoh Rameses XVII dies, succeeded by Rameses XVIII.
142 AD--Pharaoh Rameses XVIII dies, succeeded by Necho XI.
150 AD--Pharaoh Necho XI dies, succeeded by Seti VI.
150 AD-160 AD--Fourth Parthian War between Rome and Parthia. Egypt secretly finances both sides, and the war finally peters out inconclusively after ten years of fighting.
155-159 AD--Kushite Revolt. Prince Taharka briefly throws out the Egyptian garrisons and establishes independent Kushite kingdom, but Pharaoh Setiís armies succeed in re-establishing Egyptian control within four years. Egypt discovers that the Kushite rebels were financed by Parthia, chilling relations between the two empires.
191 AD--Pharaoh Seti VI dies, succeeded by Thutmoses VII.
197 AD--Pharaoh Thutmoses VII secretly forms an alliance with Rome against Parthia.
199 AD-220 AD--Fifth Parthian War between Rome and Parthia. Egypt is allied with Rome, and Parthia, despite fanatical resistance, is inexorably beaten back. Finally, severely weakened, King Artavasdes of Parthia sues for peace in 220 AD. In a humiliating peace treaty, Parthia cedes Asia Minor and Armenia to Rome, while Egypt takes Mesopotamia. Parthia falls into political turmoil shortly afterward.
203 AD--Pharaoh Thutmoses VII dies, succeeded by Psamtik XII. Psamtik XII continues the policies of his predecessor, and the war with Parthia continues.
224 AD--Ardashir I, chieftain of the Sassanid dynasty in the province of Persis, overthrows the King Artavasdes of Parthia. Sassanid Persian Empire established. The new dynasty is very aggressive, and holds dreams of re-establishing control over the full extent of the lands held by the old Achmaenid Persian empire. This does not bode well for peace in the region.
Egyptian clipart on this page is courtesy of
Copyright 2004 by Robert Perkins. All rights reserved. Last updated on June 15, 2004.